April 2006
Journal of Food Protection, Volume 69, Number 4, pp. 762-767(6)
Zhao, Tong and Doyle, Michael P.
Eight chemicals, including glycerol monolaurate, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, lactic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium chlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium hydroxide, were tested individually or in combination for their ability to inactivate Campylobacter jejuni at 4 degrees C in suspension. Results showed that treatment for up to 20 min with 0.01% glycerol monolaurate, 0.1% sodium benzoate, 50 or 100 mM sodium chlorate, or 1% lactic acid did not substantially (<0.5 log CFU/ml) reduce C. jejuni populations but that 0.1 and 0.2% hydrogen peroxide for 20 min reduced C. jejuni populations by ca. 2.0 and 4.5 log CFU/ml, respectively. By contrast, treatments with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% acetic acid, 25, 50, and 100 mM sodium carbonate, and 0.05 and 0.1 N sodium hydroxide reduced C. jejuni populations by 5 log CFU/ml within 2 min. A combination of 0.5% acetic acid plus 0.05% potassium sorbate or 0.5% acetic acid plus 0.05% sodium benzoate reduced C. jejuni populations by 5 log CFU/ml within 1 min; however, substituting 0.5% lactic acid for 0.5% acetic acid was not effective, with a reduction of C. jejuni of 0.5 log CFU/ml. A combination of acidic calcium sulfate, lactic acid, ethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polypropylene glycol (ACS-LA) also reduced C. jejuni in suspension by 5 log CFU/ml within 1 min. All chemicals or chemical combinations for which there was a 5-log/ml reduction of C. jejuni in suspension were further evaluated for C. jejuni inactivation on chicken wings. Treatments at 4 degrees C of 2% acetic acid, 100 mM sodium carbonate, or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide for up to 45 s reduced C. jejuni populations by ca. 1.4, 1.6, or 3.5 log CFU/g, respectively. Treatment with ACSLA at 4 degrees C for 15 s reduced C. jejuni by 5 log CFU/g to an undetectable level. The ACS-LA treatment was highly effective in chilled water at killing C. jejuni on chicken and, if recycled, may be a useful treatment in chill water tanks for poultry processors to reduce campylobacters on poultry skin after slaughter.